Product Sourcing/Product Development
Product Sourcing is the basis of each and every order and proceedings. If our sourcing is from an appropriate source, the end product would also be as per our aspirations. We have strong roots penetrated all over for effective sourcing, covering all the product categories for all segments of international market. The product development becomes active once the buyer has approved on our sourced products which are sent trough photo presentations. Products is developed according to buyer's requirements and dispatched within the date stipulated by the buyer. All the samples are checked before sending so that the modifications, if any, are taken care of. We put tag with feeding all important data required by the buyer and keeps a counter sample in their record for all follow-up. The dispatch details are advised thereafter.
Outsourcing New Products & Developments:
Innovation of any inception in the development of any product leads to the market change which is supposed to be done by the trend setters. We Universal Buying Services have team of such designers who have qualified from the internationally recognized institutions & they have proved their mettle in very short span of time. We Universal Buying have a registered network of many vendors who are continuously putting their endeavors for the development of latest products on behalf of our organization which enables us to be the best outsourcing team in this vicinity.
Introduction To The Product Design
It is essential to design a product before starting it manufacture.
The idea for new or improved products comes from many sources, such as
(a) Customer’s suggestions and complaints.
(b) R&D department.
(c) Other competitor products in the market.
When a new idea has been conceived and then developed to the point at which it shows itself to be both technical and commercial viable, it is considered as how the product should be made
Making of a new or modified product will require the services of the following departments of a company.
(ii) R & D
(v) Accounts, and
Marketing gives advice on market trends. R & D develops new products. Design department modifies and extends the range of an original idea. The design department consists of designers, engineers and draughts men.
Product design deals both with form and function. Form design takes care of products shape and appearance whereas Functional design deals with its working. Persons working in design departments generally invite representatives from the Manufacturing and Sales division to view the preliminary design and collect their ideas and comments for further design modifications if any.
Effect Of Design On Cost
- Product design decidedly influences the product cost.
- A complicated product design will associate high cost and vice versa.
- Product cost is made up of
(i) Direct labour cost,
(ii) Direct material cost,
(iii) Direct expenses, and
(iv) Indirect expenses.
- Product cost can be reduced if better mutual understanding exists between design department and manufacturing division. If they mutually decide to make use of the existing equipment with a little additional tooling etc, it may be possible to reduce cost of the product.
- Product may be redesigned to lower the cost in order to complete the market; sometimes it may be at cost of product quantity.
- A designer should know the technology of industry so that he can select the best method and the materials weather they are in use in concern or not.
- Product can also be reduced by applying the concept of value analysis.
- Product cost can also be reduced by considering the following aspects at design stage.
A product should be designed of a material which is Cheaper, Correct and Easily workable and machinable etc.
A product must be designed with a minimum of material to reduced both machining cost and material cost.
Alternate cheap materials should be considered. For example, an aluminum alloy may be used for casting instead of costly magnesium alloy.
Depending upon the functional requirement of a product may be made out of metals or non metals.
2. A product should be designed out of as many as standard (and inter-changeable) parts as possible in order to cut down the product cost.
3. A product should be designed with parts as fewer as possible. Lesser the number of component parts, lesser the product cost.
4. A product should not be given tolerances unnecessary tight; this will increase rejection and in turn will add to the cost of product.
5. To high a surface finish, simply to add to sale appeal will entail high product cost.
6. To reduce product cost, some component parts of the products which can not be economically and easily manufactured in the concern itself should be purchased from outside suppliers (make or buy decision).
7. If feasible the product may be redesigned to make use of existing equipment and machinery. This will help reducing cost of the product.
8. The product design should be such that a minimum number of operations (machining, etc) are required to convert raw material into the finished product. This will decrease product cost.
9. Design should be simple so that the product can manufacture without much complications.
Requirements (Or Considerations) Of Good Production Design
It is not possible to specify exactly what constitutes a good design, but the essential requirements are that it should bring:
Customer satisfaction, and
An adequate profit.
In order to achieve customer
The product should be functionally correct.
It should possess desired degree of accuracy.
It should have required standard of reliability.
Product should be easy to operate e.g., a number of controls may be operated from one position.
Product design should be such that it is easy to achieve accessibility for servicing.
Product design should obtain good space utilization.
Product should be sufficient rugged to withstand all but exceptionally rough handling.
Product should be pleasant appearance. Colors play an important role in product design.
Product should be of reasonable price to compete other products in consumer market.
(b) Making adequate profit means that
It should be easy to manufacture the product within the available resources.
Manufacturing processes should be decided on the basis of the product quality to be manufactured. Small parts on mass scale may be produced by Die Casting rather than the Sand Casting.
The use of standard component parts wherever possible can leads to great saving.
A well designed product will consist of minimum number of parts.
Good product design should not extend the rough-put time.
A well designed product should be easy to pack and distribute.
Factors Affecting Product Design
The design of any product involves due attention to the following factors:
1. Operating conditions
Kind of workers which will be making use of the products
Conditions of noise, vibrations and heat, etc.
Speed, feed, etc.
Length of time.
Type of materials used.
4. Company experience
Has the product been designed by the company before?
Has the company experience or expertise to design the product?
Industrial Design Factors
Is the product suitable for human use?
Does the use of product cause excessive fatigue to the workers?
does the product fulfil the principles of ‘Fitting the job to the workers?
(c) Designing for production-Economics Factors
Materials specifications: Is the cheapest material, consistent with technical design requirements, being used.
Yield: Is the waste during production being minimized?
Content: Is the minimum amount of material being used in making each component part?
Equipments: For the production quantity required, can the most productive equipment be employed?
Layout: Does the product design make best use of factory layout?
Labor: Can the product be manufactured with the available (direct and indirect) labor?
Tolerance: Does the product design
allow the maximum possible tolerance?
Tooling: Does the product design permit the use of existing or otherwise simple economical tooling?
Is design simple?
Does it keep (number of) types and varieties of parts to a minimum?
Does the design make use of standard parts?
Finish may include painting, polishing, electroplating, etc.
Is the right finish being used
consistent with cost, endurance and appearance requirements?
Design By Imitation
- New design comes from innovation.
- New conceived ideas are developed and turned into new products. But, this procedure involves a lot of money and risk of failure or unsuccessful in the consumer market.
- For this reason, the greatest flow of new designs is not from innovations but by imitation.
- Design by imitation saves a lot of R & D money and avoids the risk of being of unsuccessful, because only those design are imitated which have proved their success in the market.
- Imitators starts late but move faster than the innovators since they can easily get the new products and its designs.
- For example, in 1950’s, Sperry rand had the first computer but IBM soon captured the market and is very well know today for its computers.
Design Specifications And Drawings
A designer communicates his ideas to the manufacturing section through the medium of drawings and specifications.
Preparation of drawings and specifications is the last step in product design.
- Drawings show the exact size and shape of the products, its different parts and subassemblies.
- Rough sketches made during the process of product designing are drafted into exact engineering drawings.
- Drawing show, how the finished parts, subassemblies and the final product look like when completed.
- Drawings are generally made on standard-sized drawing sheet in order to facilitate their storage, filling and reproduction.
- A drawing should be kept as simple as possible and be clearly drawn.
- An ambiguity on a drawing can lead to mistakes.
- An engineering drawing should include the following information.
(i) Component part number (for identification) and part description,
(ii) Dimensions from a common datum face to facilitate setting and gauging,
(iii) Tolerances and limits,
(iv) Material details including specifications, size and conditions,
(v) Final description,
(vi) Title block,
(vii) Scale and projections, and
(viii) Details of any inspection requirements.
- Before releasing drawings to the manufacturing sections they should be checked, approved by the persons concerned and given the date of issue.
Specification (Bill of Material or Parts List)
- Product design features other than physical dimensions (already shown on the drawing) are described in writing in the form of specifications.
- The specification is regarded as the key manufacturing document.
- Industries producing single unit articles such as forgings and castings can provide all the relevant information’s on the drawings, but those industries which makes assemblies need a complete parts list to assist in buying, production control and assembly
- Specification provides a written statement of requirements. It states the function of the products.
- In addition, the specification may include the followings
(i) Conditions of testing (i.e., range of temperature, vibrations, humidity, etc.)
(ii) Efficiency of performance,
(iii) Site testing and commissioning procedure, and
(iv) Quality of material and finish, etc.
- A Product is an article obtained by transformation of raw material and is marketed/sold by the manufacturer, i.e. a product is a salable item.
- Development is carried out after applied research which follows pure research.
- Development concerns the most economically feasible method for applying the principle identify through research.
- Product research and development are concerned with all aspect of the product design and application including its,
(i) Functional efficiency
(iii) Unexplored uses
(iv) Investigation of materials and possible substitutes.
(v) Utilizations of waste products and
(vi) Standardization and consumer satisfaction.
- Product development is essential in order to,
(i) Meet changing consumer need
(ii) Manufacture improved and low cost products.
(iii) Maintain (ones) sales position and profit margin.
- Product can be developed by
(i) Imitation, i.e. marketing another product similar to one in the market,
(ii) Adaptation, i.e. developing an improved product for an already existing in the market.
(iii) Invention, e.g. synthetic fibers, nylon, etc.
- Product development may involve a
(i) Small refinement, or
(ii) A major redesign.
- Product development generally involves considerable expenditure, but a concern has to meet it if it has to survive when competition is hard.
Product Development Procedure
The various steps involved in developing a product are discussed below,
Get new ideas,
Separate the good and feasible ideas,
Evaluate ideas from markets point of view,
Take the final decision,
Evaluate ideas from markets point of view,
Get into production, and
Introduce product into the market.
New ideas can be obtained,
By invention (i.e. R & D).]
From dealers and customers
By advertising-Asking people to send their ideas and announcing prices for the best idea.
(b) Separate the good, meritorious and feasible ideas from amongst the many, received in step
(a) above. Screening of ideas may be done by a committee consisting of managers of R & D, Production, Sales and other departments related with the product development.
(c) The selected idea evaluated technically as regard,
- The method of manufacturer,
- Labour and equipment requirement,
- Performance characteristic of the products,
- Cost of manufacture, etc.
(d) Selected ideas are evaluated as regards their acceptability by the customer.
- The first evaluation is simply a cursory survey by salesmen.
- If the idea looks promising a nationwide market survey can be conducted.
(e) Based on the information collected on technical and market aspects of the new products, it is decided finally as whether to go ahead for production or to forget the idea.
(f) It is decided to take up the idea,
- The product is designed,
- Equipments are ordered,
- Materials are procured
- Worker are selected and trained
- Control system etc., are established, and it is decided whether to manufacture the product on mass scale or job lot basis.
(g) While the product is under manufacture, preparations are done to introduce the product into the market and to impress the market with the developed product. The following aspects are explored,
(i) Size, Location and Characteristics of market,
(ii) Advertisement policies,
(iii) Appealing packaging,
(iv) Channels of distribution,
(v) Price, Discount and Guarantees,
(vi) Service after sale. Etc.